Research papers

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Please note that this page relates to a deprecated version of RSS-CB. Please find links to the current version via the RSS-CB home page

This Application Guide illustrates how RSS-CB facilitates creation of consistent RSS feeds representing Working Papers, Economic Review articles and other items of central bank research that typically are attributed to identified authors. Institutional research publications (monthly bulletins, inflation reports etc) are described in a separate application guide, mainly because their titles are regular instead of unique, and their authors (other than the institution as a whole or a particular department) are rarely indicated.

The most common elements of an RSS feed item (title, description and URL) match nicely with the typical components of a research paper (title, abstract and full paper). As full PDF papers always reside on websites of the publishing institution, RSS feeds will increase the likelihood of truly interested readers to visit the website after having read the description of the RSS item.

The attached presentation (PDF version of Impress file, within describes how the content of RSS 1.0 feeds for Research content needs to take into account the various users of the information


RSS-CB 1.0 for research papers

On any central bank website, a research paper typically consists of the title, name(s) of author(s), abstract and link to the full (PDF) paper, possibly together with a link to an abstract (HTML) page. Additional frequently used elements are JEL classification codes and the sequence number (eg WP234) of the paper.

We use two examples:

Paper 1:
Title = Public and private information in monetary policy models
Authors = Jeffery D. Amato and Hyun Song Shin
Abstract = Two paragraphs of text on an HTML page
Series = BIS Working Papers
Sequence nr = 138
JEL codes = D43, D82, D84, E31, E52
Link to abstract =
Link to full PDF =
Paper 2:
Title = Financial stability and the design of monetary policy
Authors = Alicia García Herrero and Pedro del Río
Abstract = 120 words of text next to an anchor on an HTML page
Series = Bank of Spain Working Papers
Sequence nr = 0315
JEL codes = E44, E52, G21
Link to abstract =
Link to full PDF =

Proposal: Use the standard RSS item tags, supported by most common RSS readers, to capture the elements necessary for complete identification of the research paper. Additional tags can be included to hold more detailed information that can be parsed by automated processes or used by custom aggregators. Some of these tags are already widely used and well-documented, and can be taken from the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (denoted with the <dc:> namespace). Additional elements, where necessary, can be specialized for use within RSS-CB (denoted by <cb:> tags).

The details of our proposed specification as well as questions for discussion are outlined below.

Basic RSS item elements

The three elements that we can guarantee that all RSS display vehicles will honor are title, description and link. The information needed to fully identify a research paper (or other Central Bank research publication) should be fully covered by these tags. These three tags are native to all RSS specifications.


Required: Contains a string field with the entire research paper title, regardless of length. Any additional information is provided at the discretion of the institution. See User Guide


Required: The link points to the landing page for this particular paper as chosen by the institution. It could be a dedicated landing page, an abstract page for the paper, or a full-text version. Although there may be industry "best practices" for site design, those are outside the scope of this project; RSS considerations probably should not determine the structure of the basic content of a web site. Standard RSS readers and aggregators will simply be looking for a single text field containing a URL. This URL should point to whatever the institution considers the main landing page for the content. See User Guide


Required: The contents of this field are left to the discretion of the institution (aside from the suggested maximum of 500 characters in the RSS 1.0 specification). For human readers, rather than aggregators, this will be the only description information available about the paper. See User Guide

RSS-CB metadata elements

The following specifications are RSS-CB metadata tags to provide additional machine-actionable information for working paper feeds. When implementing a RSS-CB feed for research papers, please refer to the User guide, which contains details of which data to enter.


Recommended: Indicates language of the content described by the item. See User Guide

Discussion: The item links to one specific resource, so there should be one specific language indicated by the feed. In an international context such as that for central banks, and with the possibility of aggregated feeds, this field could be useful for any content.

The language of the feeds is a separate issue, and could be determined by a language attribute for various elements. The language of the content should instead by determined by a language element.

Some central banks might implement translations of a given resource.


Required: Corresponds to the date for the feed. See User Guide


Optional. See User Guide


Required. Set to the value paper. See User Guide


Required. This should contain only the formal title of the content. See User Guide


Recommended. This is the date that the research paper was published. It is useful for consistency with other applications. By way of comparison, dc:date refers to the time the item first appeared in the RSS feed.See User Guide


Recommended. Fields contain words or phrases used to briefly describe the content and allow for search. Multiple instances should be used to cover multiple keywords. Keywords are available to characterize areas covered by a paper even if they are not the formal subject of the paper, and allow for dimensions of characterization not covered by JEL codes or other controlled vocabularies, such as when an article may use but not be about "hedonic prices". See User Guide


Recommended. Contains author identification information. There will be multiple instances of this element where there are multiple authors. Use type="Author" to indicate authors. This element can also be used to specify editors. See User Guide


Recommended. The full byline for the paper or publication as it appears in the published version. See User Guide


Recommended. See User Guide


Recommended. See User Guide


Recommended. See User Guide


Recommended. See User Guide

Example research paper feed

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<channel rdf:about="">
  <title>BIS Working Papers</title>
  <description>BIS Working Papers are written by economists from the BIS and, occasionally,
 from central banks or academic institutions. Some of these papers have been presented at 
BIS meetings or at events organised by other organisations. The views expressed in them are
those of the authors and not necessarily those of the BIS.</description>
      <rdf:li rdf:resource="" />
      <rdf:li rdf:resource="" />
  <dc:publisher>Bank for International Settlements</dc:publisher>

<item rdf:about="">

  <title>Public and private information in monetary policy models</title>
  <description>This paper examines the impact of public information in an economy where
   agents also have diverse private information.It was presented as part of the BIS 
conference on "Monetary stability, financial stability and the business cycle" held on 
8-29 March 2003 and comments from conference participants are included.</description>
  <dcterms:BibliographicCitation>Amato, Jeffery D. and Hyun Song Shin, "Public and private
 information in monetary policy models," BIS working papers 138. Basel: Bank for 
International Settlements, September 2003</dcterms:BibliographicCitation>
  <cb:simpleTitle>Public and private information in monetary policy models</cb:simpleTitle>
  <cb:keyword>imperfect information</cb:keyword> 
  <cb:keyword>monopolistic competition</cb:keyword> 
  <cb:keyword>targeting rule</cb:keyword>
  <cb:keyword>Markov chain</cb:keyword>
  <cb:keyword>Kalman filter</cb:keyword>
  <cb:person type="Author">
    <cb:nameAsWritten>Jeffery D. Amato</cb:nameAsWritten>
  <cb:person type="Author">
    <cb:givenName>Song Shin</cb:givenName>
    <cb:nameAsWritten>Hyun Song Shin</cb:nameAsWritten>
  <cb:byline>Amato, Jeffery D. and Hyun Song Shin</cb:byline>

Another example item

  <item rdf:about="">
    <title>Global price dispersion: are prices converging or diverging?</title>
      This paper documents significant time-variation in the degree of global price
      convergence over the last two decades. In particular, there appears to be a general Ushaped
      pattern with price dispersion first falling and then rising in recent years, a pattern
      which is remarkably robust across country groupings and commodity groups. This time variation
      is difficult to explain in terms of the standard gravity equation variables
      common in the literature, as these tend not to vary much over time or have not risen in
      recent years. However, regression analysis indicates that this time-varying pattern
      coincides well with oil price fluctuations, which are clearly time-varying and have risen
      substantially since the late 1990s. As a result, this paper offers new evidence on the role
      of transportation costs in driving international price dispersion.
    <cb:simpleTitle>Global price dispersion: are prices converging or diverging?</cb:simpleTitle>
    <cb:person type="Author">
      <cb:nameAsWritten>Paul R. Bergin</cb:nameAsWritten>
    <cb:person type="Author">
      <cb:nameAsWritten>Reuven Glick</cb:nameAsWritten>
    <cb:byline>Bergin, Paul R. and Glick, Reuven</cb:byline>
    <cb:publicationDate>December 2006</cb:publicationDate>
    <cb:publication>Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Working Paper Series</cb:publication>